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Nausea and vomiting

Nausea is the sensation of having an urge to vomit. Vomiting is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.
Your body has a few main ways to respond to an ever-changing, wide variety of invaders and irritants. Sneezing ejects the intruders from the nose, coughing from the lungs and throat, diarrhea from the intestines, and vomiting from the stomach.
Vomiting is a forceful action accomplished by a fierce, downward contraction of the diaphragm. At the same time, the abdominal muscles tighten against a relaxed stomach with an open sphincter. The contents of the stomach are propelled up and out.
You may have more saliva just before vomiting.
Vomiting is a complex, coordinated reflex orchestrated by the vomiting center of the brain. It responds to signals coming from:
• The mouth, stomach, and intestines
• The bloodstream, which may contain medicines or infections
• The balancing systems in the ear (motion sickness)
• The brain itself, including unsettling sights, smells, or thoughts
An amazing variety of stimuli can trigger vomiting, from migraines to kidney stones. Sometimes, just seeing someone else vomit will start you vomiting, in your body's effort to protect you from possible exposure to the same danger.
Vomiting is common. Almost all children will vomit several times during their childhood. In most cases, it is due to a viral gastrointestinal infection.
“Spitting up,” the gentle sloshing of stomach contents up and out of the mouth, sometimes with a burp, is an entirely different process. Some spitting up is normal for babies, and usually gets gradually better over time. If spitting up worsens or is more frequent, it might be reflux disease. Discuss this with your child's doctor.
Most of the time, nausea and vomiting do not require urgent medical attention. However, if the symptoms continue for days, they are severe, or you cannot keep down any food or fluids, you may have a more serious condition.
Dehydration is the main concern with most vomiting. How fast you become dehydrated depends on your size, frequency of vomiting, and whether you also have diarrhea.

The following are possible causes of vomiting:
• Viral infections
• Medications
• Seasickness or motion sickness
• Migraine headaches
• Morning sickness during pregnancy
• Food poisoning
• Food allergies
• Brain tumors
• Chemotherapy in cancer patients
• Bulimia
• Alcoholism
These are possible causes of vomiting in infants (0 - 6 months):
• Congenital pyloric stenosis, a constriction in the outlet from the stomach (the infant vomits forcefully after each feeding but otherwise appears to be healthy)
• Food allergies or milk intolerance
• Gastroenteritis (infection of the digestive tract that usually causes vomiting with diarrhea)
• Gastroesophageal reflux
• An inborn error of metabolism
• Hole in the bottle nipple may be wrong size, leading to overfeeding
• Infection, often accompanied by fever or runny nose
• Intestinal obstruction, evidenced by recurring attacks of vomiting and crying or screaming as if in great pain
• Accidentally ingesting a drug or poison
Call the doctor immediately or take the child to an emergency care facility if you suspect poisoning or drug ingestion!

Home Remedies: 
It is important to stay hydrated. Try steady, small amounts of clear liquids, such as electrolyte solutions. Other clear liquids -- such as water, ginger ale, or fruit juices -- also work unless the vomiting is severe or it is a baby who is vomiting.
For breastfed babies, breastmilk is usually best. Formula-fed babies usually need clear liquids.
Don’t drink too much at one time. Stretching the stomach can make nausea and vomiting worse. Avoid solid foods until there has been no vomiting for six hours, and then work slowly back to a normal diet.
An over-the-counter bismuth stomach remedy like Pepto-Bismol is effective for upset stomach, nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea. Because it contains aspirin-like salicylates, it should NOT be used in children or teenagers who might have (or recently had) chickenpox or the flu.
Most vomiting comes from mild viral illnesses. Nevertheless, if you suspect the vomiting is from something serious, the person may need to be seen immediately.

Main Herbs those used in vomiting
Aduwa or Sunthi  or Zingiber officinalis  or Ginger
Elaichi  or Elettaria cardamomum  or Cardamom
Lavanga  or Syzygium aromaticum  or Clove
Saunf  or Foeniculum vulgare  or Fennel

Drinking Lemon water or smelling a Lemon while traveling is the best solution to stop vomiting due to motion sickness.
A pinch of Powdered Clove (Laung) with Honey taken helps to stop vomiting during pregnancy.
Eating Gooseberry (Amla) Morabba helps to stop vomiting during pregnancy.
 Drinking Water melon (Tarbooj) juice mixed with Sugar candy (Mishri) powder, helps to stop vomiting caused by Pitt.
Drinking a spoon of Tamarind juice ( Imli ) helps to stop vomiting caused by Pitt.
 Boil ground Coriander (Dhania) seeds or leaves grinded in water and filter. Sipping the decoction slowly, helps to stop vomiting.
 Drinking a spoon of Basil (Tulsi) juice with Honey helps to stop vomiting.
 Boil Neem leaves in water and filter. Drinking this decoction helps to stop vomiting.
 Eating Harro (Terminalia chebula, haritaki) powder mixed with Honey, helps to stop vomiting.
Drinking Mint (Pudina) juice mixed with Lemon juice, helps to stop vomiting.
Eating a raw Onion with Honey or drinking a spoon of Onion juice and Ginger juice, helps to stop vomiting.
Sprinkle Black pepper ( mirich) powder and Rock salt (Saindha namak) on a piece of Ginger. Slowly sucking the ginger helps to stop vomiting.
Taking Cumin seeds (Jeera) powder, Cardamom powder (Elaichi) mixed in a spoon of Honey, or drinking milk boiled with Cumin seeds powder and Cardamom powder, helps to stop vomiting.
Taking Powdered Cinnamon (Dalchini) mixed with Honey, or drinking milk boiled with Cinnamon, helps to stop vomiting.
In half glass of water put half spoon of Lemons juice, pinch of Cumin (Jeera) powder and a pinch of Cinnamon (Dalchini) powder.Drinking this thrice a day helps to stop vomiting.
Smelling roasted Clove (Laung) helps to stop vomiting sensation.
Boil two Cloves with a pinch of Cinnamon (Dalchini) in water and filter, Drinking this decoction helps to stop vomiting.

Ayurvedic Drugs:
Yaladi wati, mayurpuccha bhasma etc.

Alert condition:
Call the doctor if the person has:
• Vomiting longer than 24 hours
• Blood or bile in the vomit
• Severe abdominal pain
• Headache and stiff neck
• Signs of dehydration
Signs of dehydration include:
• Increased thirst
• Infrequent urination or dark yellow urine
• Dry mouth
• Eyes that appear sunken
• Crying without tears
• Loss of normal skin elasticity (if you touch or squeeze the skin, it doesn't bounce back the

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