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Tinospora Cordifolia

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Tinospora Cordifolia
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Scientific Name: Tinospora Cordifolia
English Name: Gulancha tinospara,
Nepali Name: Gurjo
Sanskrit Name: Gudichi


Sanskrit Synonyms: Amrita, somavalli, cchinna, cakra, vatsadani, somavalli, kundali, amrtavalli, amrtasamjna, amrtahva, amrtalata, amrtaka, cchinnaja, cchinnaruha, cakrangi, cakrahva

Description:
A deciduous, woody climber. The young stem is green, cylindrical and smooth. The matured stem has warts on the surface, hanging aerial roots and peeling bark. The matured stem when crushed is sticky. The stem and leaves are bitter in taste. The leaves are heart shaped with pointed leaf tip, dark green and borne on a stout leaf stalk. The flowers are unisexual (male and female flowers are separate), small, yellow or greenish yellow. Flowers are borne on nodes of old stem. They appear when the plant is leafless. The fruits are called drupes, which are found in clusters. Fruits look like bunch of red cherries. Each drupe is small and globose. Fruits turn red when ripened. The seeds are crescent shaped.
tinospora cordifolia

Habitat :
The climber is found in scrub jungles, fences.

Distribution:
It grows in tropical and sub tropical regions upto an altitude of 300 meters.

Part Used: Stem

Phytochemicals:
Its principal constituents are tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, heptacosanol, clerodane furano diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and b-sitosterol.

Medicinal properties:
It is Antiperiodic, Antipyretic, Alterative, Diuretic, Anti-inflammatory. It is a contituent of several compound preparations. It is used in fever, urinary disorders, dyspepsia, torpidity of the liver, skin diseases, secondary syphilis, rheumatism, constipation, tuberculosis, leprosy and general debility. It is also used in treatment of rheumatism and jaundice. It is a blood purifier and may be useful in AIDS and other immune diseases also. It is also being proposed for cancer patients before and after chemotherapy.

Clincal Reports:
Stems effective remedy for amavata & sandhigatavata, two types of rheumatic afflictions (7027) ; Immunotherapy in obstructive jaundice of 30 surgical cases ; Adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy & tuberculosis ; Effective in Hepatic amoebiasis (7043) ; Formulation with others (Sudarhan) cured 26/30 patients ; Effective in 2 cases of throat cancer with Adhatoda (7045) ; Effective in Jaundice, 18/20 cases, Bilirubin levels satisfactory ; Rumalaya preparation antiinflammatory (7044) ; Arthritis patients 28/50 responded & pain and tenderness of joints decreased ; Stem -water extract orally at 900 mg.has diuretic action ; Stem compounded with other plants improved sexual performance & acted as aprodisiac in 56 cases treated for 4 weeks ( 7044 ) . Aqueous extract inhibited deposition of secondary salts over the Zinc pellets in 22 rats with urinary calculi induced by implanting Zinc pellets into the bladder and found to be useful in dissolving urinary calculi . Ind.J . Med . Res ., 1967, 55 ( 7 ), 733 ( 7019 ) . Water extract significantly decreased blood urea levels in uremic dogs and human cases .J.Res. Ind . Med ., 1975, 10 ( 1 ), 9 ( 7019, 7121 ) . Clinically it has been tried as a therapeutic modality in rheumatid arthritis, jaundice and diabetes ( 7121 ) . A compound preparation containing T.cordifolia exhibited significant hypoglycemic property on clinical trial ( 7124 ) . Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage ( PTDB ) - Patients receiving Tinospora during PTDB and without PTDB showed significant improvement in PMN functions in 3 weeks . Mortality during preoperative period in group C and D was 25 and 14.2 % and no mortality after the surgery and showed rthat host defence functions play an important roleas immunotherapeutic potentiator . HPB Surg., 1995, 9, 5 ( 7043 ) .Immuno therapy - New lead in management of malignant obstructive jaundice -30 patients were treated conventionally ( group I ) and another group was given Tinospora orally ( group II ) in addition at 16 mg / kg / day. Hepatic functions were comparable in both groups but phagocytic and killing capacity of neutrophils normalised only in patiens given Tinospora . ( 28.2 + -5.5 and 29.47 + - 6.5 respectively ) . Clinical evidence of septicemia was 50 % in group I and none in group II and post operative survival was 40 and 92 % respectively . Tinospora improved surgical outcome by strengthening host defences . Ind.J.Gastroenterol., 1993, 12 ( 1 ) 5 ( 7043 ) .Immunosuppression modulation - Immunostatus of 16 patients with obstructive jaundice treated with Tinospora showed depression of polymorphonuclear cell activity . Rats with cholestasis treated with water extract at 100 mg / kg . for 7 days improved cellular functions and mortality rate( reduced to 16.7 % ) following E.coli infection . Cholestasis induced immunosuppression needs immunomodulation in obstructive jaundice and Tinospora seems to consolidate host defence mechanism . Ind.J.Med.Res., 1989, 90, 478 ( 7043 ) . Comparative diuretic effects of Tinospora and hydrochlorothiazide in rats and preliminary study in human volunteers are reported in J.Post.Grad.Med., 1988 , 34 ( 4 ) 23 ( 7043 ). Six goats treated orally with Liv-52 at 1 ml/kg and Tinospora decoction at 5 ml / kg showed improvement in clinical and haemato-biological values and showed that the drug had hepatoprotective action . However the regeneration of hepatic cells was better with Liv-52. Ind J Vet Med., 1990, 60(5) 526 (7130).

Immuno-modulation Actions:
Stem - Water extract showed immunosuppressive effect in rabbits . Ind.J. Pharmacol . 1977, 9, 221 ( 7034 ) . Syringin ( TC-4 )and Cordiol ( TC-7 ) inhibited in vitro immunohaemolysis of antibody coated sheep erythrocytesby G.pig serum . The compounds increased IgG antibodies in serum . Cordiosides, ( TC-2 )Cordifolioside- A( TC-5 ) and Cordiol ( TC- 7 ) showed macrophage activation and increasing incubation times . The compounds showed anticomplementory and immunomodulatory activities . J.Ethnopharmacol., 1997, 58 ( 2 ) 89 ( 7043 ) . Hepatic amoebiasis and immunomodulation - T.cordifolia in formulation with others was effective in Exptl . amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters . It showed cure rate of 73 % at 800 mg / kg / day . It reduced infection by 1.3 compared to 4.2 for Sham treated controls . Humoral immunity was enhanced Vs Haemoagglutination titre . and cell mediated response was stimulated . J.Ethnopharmacol., 1996, 54 ( 2-3 ) 119 ( 7043 ) . Mice treated with T.cordifolia for 10 days at 100 mg / kg / day showed activation of macrophages in the serum, induced significant increase in CFUGM leading to increase in GM - CSF leadinf to leucocytosis and improved neutrophil function . J.Post.Grad.Med., 1994, 40 ( 4 ) 202 ( 7043 ) . Microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes in vitro showed that phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell using Candida sp. . Activation of macrophages was induced by metronidazole, Tinospora and Asparagus. All the three increased phagocytic and killing capacities of macrophages upto a certain extent when compared with standard immunomodulator Muranyl - dipeptide .us . J.Post.Grad.Med., 1993, 39 ( 1 ) 22 ( 7043 ) .Immunotherapeutic modification of E.coli peritonitisand bacteremia - Pretreatment of mice ( injected with E.coli I/P ) with Tinospora or gentamycin reduced mortality to 17.8 and 11.1 % respectively against 100 % in controls . Tinospora treated group showed improved bacterial clearance, phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils ( Tinospora has no bactericidal effect in vitro ) . Prohost approach may be beneficial in peritonitis therapy . J.Post.Grad.Med., 1992, 38 ( 1 ) 13 ( 7043 ) . Tinospora and Asparagus are potent immunostimulants comparable to Lithium and Glucon Vs Myelosuppressive effects of Cyclophosphamide . Methods Find.Ex.Clin.Pharmacol., 1986, 10, 639 ( 7043 ) . Tinospora showed Immunotherapeutic modification of abdominal sepsis induced by caecal ligation in rats .Ind.J.Gastoenterol., 1988, 7 ( 1 )21 ( 7043 ) .. Alcoholic extract improved phagocytic function without affecting humoral or cell mediated immune system . J.Ethnopharmacol., 1986, 18 ( 2 ) 133 ( 7043 )

Dosage:
Paste, juice, and powder: 5 gm/ 5ml
Decoction: 30 ml
Pills: 2 pills three times per day.

Ayurvedic preparations:
Guduchyadi churna, Amrtasista etc.