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Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.

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Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.
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SYNONYMS :
SURASA, TULASI, SURABHI, BAHUMANJARI, APETARAKSASI, GOURI, BHUTAGHNI, DEVADUNDUBHI, BHUTMANJARI, GRAMYA, SULABHA, BAHUMANJARI, APATARAKSASI, DEVEDUNDUBHI, SUBHAGA, TIVRA, PAVANI, VISNUVALLAB HA, SUREJYA, KAYASTHA, SURADUNDUBHI, BAHUPATRI, MANGARI, HARIPRIYA, SYAMA, TRIDASAMANJARI, PUTAPATRI

Morphology :-

Description :
A sweet scented woody herb. This is popularly called Sacred basil or Tulasi. The stem and leaves are hairy and green to purple colored. The leaves are oval shaped and has toothed margin (resembles that of pudina leaves). The leaves have sweet and pungent taste. The flowers are small, white to pink or purplish, 2-lipped (looks like snake with open mouth) and arranged in whorls on a spike. The fruits are nutlets. Each nutlet has four, small seeds, which resembles that of small mustard (minute in size). Seeds don’t become sticky when wet.

Habitat :
Abundantly found near cultivated fields, fallow lands and wastelands. Planted and worshiped.

Propagation :-
Seed Propagation :
The seeds can be directly sown or transplanted. Seeds are mixed with sand to ensure even propagation and sown during mid February by hand or drill in rows spaced 50-60 cm apart at a depth of about 2 cm and covered with soil. Seeds start to germinate within 10-15 days. Seedlings with 4-6-leaved stage become ready in about 6-7 weeks for transplanting in the field at a spacing of 60 x 60 cm.

Parts Used: Leaf

Chemical Constituents
 Essential oil (0.7%) containing eugenol (71.3%), carvacrol (32%), methyl eugenol (20.4%), caryophyllene (1.7%) (7046), Apigenin, Luteolin ( 7073 ), Essential oil contained nerol, terpinene, selinene, pinene, camphor. Leaves contained ursolic acid, orientin, molludistin (7126) . Old leaves contained 3.15 % calcium, 0.34 % phosphorus, 4.97 % insoluble oxalate (7126) .

 Clinical Reports
Effective in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in children ; Antispasmodic & antiasthmatic (7027) ; Clinical & biochemical clearance of Viral hepatitis(7036) ; Leaf -- water extract given oral was antiasthmatic in humans ; Essential oil & fixed oil intragastric in G.pig at 0.5 ml/kg & 1ml/kg was antiasthmatic & antiinflammatory ( 7044 ) . Solid extract - In a dose of 500 mg . thrice daily for 1 week in 20 patients witrh tropical eosinophilia significantly reduced breathlessness but eosinophil count remained unaffected .Sachitra Ayur. 1983, 665 ( 7121 ) . Randomised single blind trial in patients with non insulin dependent patients lowered FBS and PBS and the basil leaves act as adjunct to dietary therapy in mild to moderate NIDDM . Int.J.Clin. Pha.Ther., 1996, 34 ( 9 ) 406 ( 7043 ) Inhalation therapy - .A multicomponent drug containing O.sanctum, A.sativum, P.nigrum and Curcuma longa used in treating 49 patients with Pl.Vivax and 4 patients with Pl.falciparum malaria did not have any antiparacetaemic effect during 1 week of observation but showed relief in 52.2 % of Pl.vivax malaria and in all the 4 case of Pl.falciparum malaria . Ind.J.Med.Res., 1976, 64, 1451 ( 7126 ) .A compound formulatioon, Tefroli, containing O, sanctum, T.purpurea, Eclipta alba, Andrographis, T. chebula shortened the course of illness significantly and the clinical symptoms as well as biochemical parameters ( bilirubin clarance and SGPT levels ) showed improvement compared to those on placebo . Antiseptic, 1980, 77, 643 .( 7126 ) . Water extract given to 16 patients of viral encephalitis showed higher survival rate than those treated with steroids . Incidence of residual neurological deficit was found to be low during a period of one month under observation . Antiseptic, 1983, 80, 323 .( 7126 ) . Local application of leaf juice against acne vulgaris was found beneficial in 25 cases . ( 7126 )