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Piper Longum

Scientific Name: Piper Longum
English Name: Long Pepper
Nepali Name: Pipala
Synonyms:
PIPPALI, MAGADHI, KRSNA, CAPALA, TIKSNATANDULA, UPAKULYA, KANA, SYAMA, KOLA, SOUNDI, OSANA, MAGADHA, KANI, VISVA, UPAKULYA, VAIDEHI, TIKSNATANDULA, MAGADHI, KRSNA, KRKARA, KANA, KATUVIJA, KARANGI, VAIDEHI, TIKTATANDULA, SYANAA, DANTAPHALA, MAGADHODBHAVA, UPAKULYA, SMRTYANVA, TIKSNATANDULA

Description:
A perennial, climbing herb with slender branches. The roots are found clasping at nodes. The male and female plants are separate. The branches are erect, slender and sometime climbing. The leaves are simple, alternate, oval- heart shaped with round lobes at the base, and smooth. There are seven prominent ribs from the base of the leaves. The flowers are arranged in dense spikes. The male spikes are longer and slender. The female spikes are stout. The flowers are greenish-yellow and inconspicuous (small). The fruits are borne on female plant called berries. The single seeded berries are yellowish orange when ripe. The fruit is pungent in taste.

Distribution:
It grows in mountain valleys and coastal areas of tropical, as well as sub-tropical regions.

Part Used:
Fruit, Root and Stem

Phytochemicals:
Piperine, Piplartine , Pipernoline, Piperundecalidine , Roots -Piperolactam A, B and Piperadine  ; Aristolactam A - II ; Fruit -Eicosadienamide, Eicosatrienamide, Guineensine, Longamide, Octadecadie, Piperlongine, Piperlongumine, Pellitorine, Piper Piperidine alkaloid I, Pipercide, Piperundecalidine (alkaloid ) ; Essential oil -- Carveol, Cymene ; Terpinolena, Thujene, Zingiberene, Root -- Cepharadione A, B, Piperadione, Piperlongine, Piperlongumine, (alkaloid ) ; Stem -- Piperaltine, Seed -- Sylvatine ( alkaloid )

Medicinal properties:
It is aromatic, stomachache, stimulant and carminative. It is good for constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue. It is also advised in diarrhea , cholera, scarlatina, Chronic Malaria and Viral hepatitis. Piper Longum is most commonly used to treat respiratory infections, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, tumors, and asthma. When applied topically, it soothes and relieves muscular pains and inflammation. It is said to be a good rejuvenator. Piper Longum helps stimulate the appetite and it dispels gas from the intestines. An infusion of Piper Longum root is used after birth to induce the expulsion of the placenta.

Dosage:
Powder and paste fruits: one teaspoonful is taken three times per day.
Decoction: 30ml three times per day.
Root Powder: one teaspoonful is taken three times per day.

Ayurvedic preaparations:
Vyosadi wati, pippalyasava, gudapipali etc.