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Gymnema sylvestra

                                                                 
Synonyms:
Sanskrit Names: Mesha-shringi, Madhunashini, Ajaballi, Avartini
Nepali Name: Gudamaar
Latin Name: Gymnema sylvestra r. br.
Hindi Name: Gurmar
Family: Asclepiadaceae

General introduction:
A large woody, branched, hairy twinner running over the tops of high tree.
Leaves: 1-2 inch long, ovate, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, acute or shortly acuminate, more or less pubescent on both sides, base rounded or cordate.
Flower: Greenish yellow, pedunculate or nearly sessile cyme.
Fruit: 2-3 inch long, 0.2 to 0.3 inch thick, rigid, cylindrical.
Seeds: 1.3 cm long narrowly ovoid-oblong, flat, brown, glabrous.
Root: 1-1/4 inch thick.
Flowering month: August-September
Fruiting time: January-March.
Gymnema sylvestra
Distribution: Upto 3000 feet.

Chemical composition:
Leaf: Gymnemic acid, Quercitol, Calcium oxalate, colouring substances, Anthraguinone compound, and, a bitter salvator substance too.
Ash: Alkali, phosphoric acid, ferric oxide, manganese etc.
Properties: Bitter, acrid, cooling, tonic, alterative, anthelmentic, alexiteric, useful in eye diseases, cures opacities of the lens, cornea, and vitreous body; good in diseases of the heart, piles, leucoderma, infalmmations, cure burning sensation, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers etc.
b) The leaves cause hypoglycaemia soon after oral or parenterial administration, lasts for a variable times. It does not cantain any water soluble or alcohol soluble substance which destroys glucose in vitro, nor yields any chemical body resembling insulin. It has no direct action on carbohydrate metabolism; but acts indirectly through stimulation of insulin secretion. It stimulates the heart and circulating system and increases urine secretion.
c) The presence of anthroguinone derivatives is responsible for its laxative action.

Uses:
According to Ayurveda, it is used in various Kapha-Vata disorders.
External use: its leaves paste with Ricinus cuminus (Adir) oil is applied locally in hepatitis and splenomegaly.
Internal or Systemic Uses:
a) Gastrointestinal System: in indigestion, constipation, Jaundice as well as in hemorrhoids.
b) Cardiovascular System: as a cardiac stimulant in cardiac and circulatory weakness.
c) Respiratory system: seed is used in Acute coryza , cough or asthma. In much problems smoking of root skin can be done.
d) Urinary System: in renal calculus, and in dysurea.
e) Reproductive system: As uterostimulant in amenorrhoea.
* a part there, it can be used in intermitted types of fever and root decoction in snake poison.
* Its main use is: in Glycosurea.

Parts used: leaves root.

Therapeutic dose: leaf powder: 3-6 gm, root decoction: 50-100ml.

Uses of Gyamnema sylvestre in different customes.
a) Chewing of fresh leaves to reduce glycosurea.
b) Leaves used in Furunculosis & Madhumeha ( Glycosurea).




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