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Andrographis Paniculata

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Andrographis Paniculata
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NepaliName : Kalmegh
Latin Name :
Andrographis paniculata
Synonyms
Justicia latebrosa Russ., J. paniculata Burm. f., J. stricta Lam. ex Steud. (3, 4).
Selected vernacular
Akar cerita bidara, alui, Andrographidis Kraut, bidara, bhoonimba, bhuinimo, bhulimb, bhuninba, charayeta, charayetha, charita, cheranta, cherota, chiraita, chiretta, chuan-hsin-lien, chua¯n-xı¯n-lián, công công, faathalaaichon, fathalaai, fathalaichon, fathalaijone, halviva, herba sambiloto, hinbinkohomba, I-chienhsi, kalafath, kalmegh, kan-jang, kariyat, khee-pang-hee, king of bitters, kiriathu, kirta, kiryata, kiryato, lanhelian, mahatikta, mahatita, naelavemu, naynahudandi, nelavemu, quasab-uz-zarirah, rice bitters, sambilata, sambiloto, senshinren, sinta, xuyên tâm liên, yaa kannguu yijianxi (1, 2, 5–11).

Introduction
It is a principal herb in the domestic medicine called 'Alui', which is given to infants. Both in Ayurveda and Unani, it is confused with 'Chitetta' (Swertia chirata), but both are different plants. It is widely available in Arabia. It is given for fever along with several herbs. It was advertised in England as a substitute for quinine.
For centuries, the Ayurvedic practitioners of India have used the roots and leaves of the herb Andrographis paniculata to treat ailments ranging from poor digestion to hepatitis. In the Chinese medical tradition, the plant has been used to treat everything from gastrointestinal complaints to throat infections. Although some early scientific studies suggested that andrographis has a direct antimicrobial action, the weight of clinical evidence now shows that the real value of this ancient herb is as a stimulant for the immune system.

Andrographis paniculata

Morphology
Andrographis paniculata is an annual - branched, erect - running 1/2 to 1 meter in height. The aerial parts of the plant (leaves and stems) are used to extract the active phytochemicals. It grows abundantly in southeastern Asia. Normally grown from seeds, Andrographis is ubiquitous in its native areas: it grows in pine, evergreen and deciduous forest areas, and along roads and in villages. Because of its well-known medicinal properties, it is also cultivated - quite easily, because it grows in all types of soil. Moreover, it grows in soil types where almost no other plant can be cultivated, particularly "serpentine soil," which is relatively high in aluminum, copper and zinc. Such hardiness helps account for its wide distribution.

Andrographis paniculata